Ultimate Buyer’s Guide to CNC Routers


Whether you’re a hobbyist, a small business, or a large manufacturing company, choosing the right CNC router can significantly impact your efficiency and output quality. To help understand the features and specifications available, we have authored this compressive buyer’s guide to CNC routers. We’ll discuss the following:

  • What is a CNC Router?
  • Materials That Can Be Processed
  • Types of CNC Routers
  • Axes of movement
  • Understanding the different parts of a CNC router
  • Other types of cutting heads
  • A brief explanation of CAD CAM
  • What’s the difference between stepper, servo and linear drives?
  • Key Features to consider when buying a CNC router
  • Additional Considerations
  • How to Choose the Right CNC Router for Your Needs
  • CNC Routers from Daltons Wadkin
  • Conclusion of our findings
  • Glossary of useful terms for CNC Routers


What is a CNC Router?

A great question and a good place to start our guide. A CNC (Computer Numerical Control) router is a computer-controlled cutting machine used for processing a range of materials such as wood, composites, aluminium, steel, plastics, foam, rubber and more. CNC routers can perform tasks like routing (surprise surprise), pocketing, drilling, engraving and carving with repeatable precision, making them a versatile tool in many industries. The automation provided by CNC routers leads to increased productivity, reduced material waste, and consistent product quality.

11 reasons to invest in a CNC Router

Investing in a CNC router can be highly beneficial for several reasons, especially if you are involved in woodworking, manufacturing, or any industry that requires precise cutting, drilling, and shaping of materials. Here are some compelling reasons to consider:

1. Precision and Accuracy

CNC routers provide exceptional precision and accuracy. They can consistently produce parts with tight tolerances, which is crucial for high-quality production.

2. Efficiency and Productivity

Automating the cutting and shaping process with a CNC router significantly boosts efficiency. It reduces the time required to complete tasks, allowing for higher productivity and faster turnaround times.

3. Versatility

CNC routers can work with a wide range of materials, including wood, plastics, aluminium, foam, and composites. This versatility makes them suitable for various applications, from furniture making to prototyping and signage.

4. Complex Designs and Consistency

They can execute complex and intricate designs that would be challenging or impossible to achieve manually. Moreover, CNC routers ensure consistency across all produced parts, which is essential for mass production.

5. Reduced Waste

The precision of CNC routers minimises material waste. Optimised cutting paths, nesting components and accurate execution reduce errors and unnecessary material usage, saving costs on raw materials.

6. Labour Cost Savings

While the initial investment might be substantial, CNC routers can reduce labour costs over time. They require less manual intervention and supervision, allowing skilled workers to focus on other tasks.

7. Scalability

CNC routers can easily handle increased production demands. Whether you need to produce one part or thousands, the machine can be programmed to handle different volumes efficiently.

8. Safety

Automated CNC routers improve safety by reducing the need for manual cutting and shaping. This minimises the risk of accidents and injuries in the workplace.

9. Ease of Use and Automation

Modern CNC routers come with user-friendly software and interfaces. Gone are the days of manually entering line after line of code. Once the initial programming is done, they can operate with minimal human intervention, simplifying the manufacturing process.

10. Return on Investment (ROI)

The combination of increased productivity, reduced waste, lower labour costs, and the ability to take on more complex projects often results in a strong return on investment for CNC routers.

11. Innovation and Creativity

CNC routers allow for greater innovation and creativity in design. They enable businesses to experiment with new ideas and quickly bring them to life, fostering a more dynamic and competitive environment. A common phrase from customers who invested in a CNC router is, “We got it for this specific task, but now use it for all sorts of things we never dreamed of!”

Kimla BFN Linear Drive

Materials That Can Be Processed

A CNC router is a versatile machine capable of processing various materials. As we will learn below in section Other types of cutting heads, a CNC router doesn’t always just route – it can be fitted with a knife or cutting wheel for even more versatility. Here are some of the most common materials you can work with using a CNC router:


Softwoods: Pine, cedar, spruce
Hardwoods: Oak, maple, walnut, cherry
Plywood: Various grades and types
MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard): Often used for furniture and cabinetry


Acrylic (Plexiglass): Clear, coloured, and frosted
Polycarbonate (Lexan): Known for its strength and impact resistance
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride): Commonly used for signs and displays
HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene): Used for cutting boards and industrial applications
ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene): Often used in prototyping and manufacturing


Aluminium: Widely used for its light weight and machinability
Brass: Often used for decorative items and mechanical components
Copper: Used in electrical and decorative applications
Steel: With appropriate tooling some CNC routers can process steel, though typically this would be done on a CNC miller with a flood coolant system.


Polystyrene Foam (Styrofoam): Used for packaging, insulation, and prototypes
Polyurethane Foam: Used in furniture, bedding, and insulation
EVA Foam (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate): Common in craft and cosplay materials


ACM (Aluminium Composite Material): Used for cladding of buildings
Carbon Fibre: Used in high-performance and lightweight applications
Fibreglass: Commonly used in automotive, marine, and construction industries
G10: A high-pressure fibreglass laminate often used for electrical insulators and knife handles

Paper and Cardboard

Cardboard: Corrugated cardboard for packing and furniture
Paper: When equipped with a camera recognition system, CNC routers can cut to print lines for producing signage and point of sale artwork.


Natural and Synthetic Rubber: Used for gaskets, seals, and custom parts
Foam/ Model Board
Foam Core Board: Used for signage, displays, architectural models and prototyping.


Leather: Used for custom apparel, accessories, and upholstery
Fabrics: Certain CNC routers can cut textiles for fashion and interior design applications

Kimla BlackBird desktop CNC router


Types of CNC Routers

CNC routers come in various types, each designed for specific applications, materials, and production levels. Here are the main types of CNC routers:

Hobby CNC Routers

Designed for DIY enthusiasts and small projects, hobby CNC routers are compact, affordable, and easy to use. They are perfect for home use and small-scale production. Hobby CNC routers are often available in kit form for self-assembly, which can be a great way to get into CNC routers and understand their core workings.

Mid-Level CNC Routers

These routers offer a balance between affordability and functionality. They are suitable for small to medium-sized businesses and educational establishments and can handle a wider range of materials and more complex projects.

Industrial CNC Routers

Industrial-grade CNC routers are built for high-volume production, working single, double, or triple shifts and can handle large, heavy materials. They are often more customised to suit specific customer requirements, focusing on process speed.

Rotary B Axis

Axes of movement

Let’s start by looking at the more technical parts of CNC routers. All CNC machines, whether a miller, laser, plotter, waterjet or router, all share a common aspect – the axes of movement. The purpose of each of these axes is to position and move the cutting head (or sometimes the workpiece). As a minimum, there are three axes of movement: X, Y, and Z. Here’s a simple explanation of each:

X-Axis Movement

The X-axis represents latitudinal movement from left to right (or right to left).
Imagine a piece of paper in front of you: moving your hand left to right across the paper from one side to the other follows the X-axis.

Y-Axis Movement

The Y-axis represents longitudinal movement from front to back (or back to front).
On the same piece of paper, moving your hand from the edge closest to you to the edge farthest from you (or vice versa) follows the Y-axis.

Z-Axis Movement

The Z-axis represents vertical movement up and down.
In the context of the paper, moving your hand up off the paper and then back down to touch it follows the Z-axis.

The vast majority of CNC routers have three axes. However, additional axes can be used to position the cutting tool or workpiece in different orientations.

B-Axis Movement

Typically, this is a rotational axis for holding the workpiece. Think of it like a lathe but with a precisely controlled rotational movement.

C-Axis Movement:

This is used for controlling aggregate heads on a CNC router. Aggregate heads convert the vertical rotational movement of a CNC router head to other orientations. For example, a 90-degree aggregate head allows machining on the vertical face of a workpiece. The C-axis controls the direction in which the aggregate head faces.

A-Axis Movement

Similar to C-Axis Movement but rather than used to control aggregate heads, it allows the entire router spindle to rotate from vertical to horizontal to allow direct machining on two opposing vertical faces.

Kimla factory assembling a CNC router

Understanding the different parts of a CNC router

Now that we understand axes and drives, let’s delve into other important components of a CNC router. Regardless of the size, make, or model, there are a number of common features.

Frame – not the most exciting part of the machine, but important nonetheless, the frame of a CNC router is what gives the machine its overall strength. If constructed correctly, the frame will provide a stable platform for the rest of the components to operate and limit vibrations, which can negatively affect the cutting quality and limit the operational speed. Aluminium frames are common in lighter machines for hobbyist use, while industrial machines feature welded steel frames.

Router head/ spindle – the most obvious part perhaps, but the router head (also known as the spindle) holds the cutting tool itself and delivers the rotational power to the tool. Think of it as similar to a handheld power drill, but in addition to being able to drill holes in and out, the router head is also designed for sideways pressures allowing routing and other operations. Usually the rotational speed (rpm) can be controlled through an inverter, typically giving speeds between 2000 to 24000 rpm.

Z axis – the router head is mounted to the Z axis giving it vertical movement as explained above. It is important to note the Z axis movement or clearance on machine specifications as this will ultimately govern the maximum thickness of workpiece that can be machined.

Moving gantry/ X axis – the Z axis and router head is in turn mounted to the gantry and allows it to move across the X axis. The gantry in turn is mounted to the machine bed or table, which allows it to move across the Y axis.

Table/ work area/ bed – this is the area on which the workpiece is secured. The size of the work area will determine the largest component that can be worked on and can range from as small as 300 x 300mm, through to 3000 x 14000 mm or larger. Regardless of size, there are a number of different types of bed that we explore in more detail below in Work Holding and Bed Types for CNC Routers.

Drives – these deliver the power to enable each axis to move. As a minimum there is one drive to each axis of movement. As the working area of a CNC router increases in size it is often required to power the moving gantry with a drive on each side working in unison. There are three types of drive to consider – stepper, servo, linear. Each of these is explained below in What’s the difference between a CNC Router’s stepper, servo, and linear drives?

CNC controller – (yes, technically we have said computer-numerical-control-controller) or the brain of the machine if you like. The controller links the computer to the drives and router head, converting digital code into physical movement of each axis and rotational speed of the cutting tool. This can get very technical very fast. For the purposes of this guide you need to understand that some manufacturers utilise standard “off the shelf” controllers such as Siemens, Fanuc, OSAI etc, while others develop their own. There is no right or wrong approach, but done correctly, is it preferable for the manufacturer to develop their own CNC control system tailored to their exact machine requirements. It is important to understand, the CNC controller is different from the CAD/ CAM software – more on this to follow in section What is CAD CAM?

Automatic tool changer – as we now know, the router head holds the cutting tool. Routing, drilling, engraving etc all require different tools. To increase the autonomy of a CNC router an automatic tool changer (ATC) allows the machine to swap the cutting tool multiple times throughout a job. ATC’s are typically static linear banks mounted at the front or rear of the machine, or rotating carousels mounted on the side of the moving gantry. The number of positions an automatic tool changer has the more tools it can store.

Tool holder – it holds the tool, but there are different types. CNC routers with no automatic tool changer will have a simple direct collet tool fitting (see below for explanation of a collet) allowing the operator to make manual tool changes. Machines equipped with an ATC have separate tool holders, each with their own collet and tool fitted ready to be picked up by the router head. The most common tool holders in CNC routers are ISO 30, and HSK63F. ISO tool holders are simple in design and great for smaller cutters. HSK is a more expensive option but does allow for more robust clamping of larger diameter tools.

Collets – the collet is a slotted sleeve designed for a specific size tool. The tool goes into the collet, the collet into the tool holder (or directly into the router head) where it is clamped up, secured ready for cutting.

5 axis CNC knife


Other types of cutting heads

To accommodate different types of materials, CNC routers can be fitted with additional or even alternative heads for improved processing of a wider range of materials. Sometimes, these additional heads are mounted on the machine as needed or permanently installed on their own independent Z axis, allowing them to be used in conjunction with each other on the same project.

Oscillating knife head – great for working with foam, rubber, thin plastics etc. The oscillating function can be tuned to allow the knife to be dragged through the material. This is often used for shadow board tooling and customised packaging.

Creasing/ cutting wheel – can be used for creasing or cutting cardboard, fibreglass and other materials.

Camera recognition is an optical sighting system that looks for printed registration marks on a workpiece. Once found, the machine can orient the cutting path to match the printed artwork and cut accordingly precisely. This system is ideal for sign and point-of-sale applications.

CNC CAD/ CAM software

What is CAD CAM?

CAD CAM is a term you will hear a lot of when looking at CNC routers so it’s important to understand what the terms mean.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design)

CAD software creates detailed 2D and 3D models and technical drawings of parts and assemblies. It allows designers to visualise, modify, and optimise their designs before manufacturing, ensuring accuracy and efficiency. CAD tools facilitate precise measurements, complex geometries, and the creation of documentation and blueprints, streamlining the design process and reducing errors.

CAM (Computer-Aided Machining)

CAM software converts CAD models into machine instructions (G-code) that CNC machines use to fabricate parts. It takes the geometries generated by CAD and turns them into tool paths defining the tool to be used, feed speed and rotational speed of the tool for the CNC router to follow. This process can be set up to happen automatically or manually depending on how your CAM system is set up.


What’s the difference between a CNC Router’s stepper, servo, and linear drives?

Each machine axis on a CNC router is moved by a motor or drive. There are three different types of drive: stepper, servo, and linear.

Stepper motors

Stepper motors move in discrete steps, providing precise control without needing feedback, making them simple and cost-effective. They are great in applications requiring positioning at low speeds with low resistance. However, they have limitations in speed and torque and can suffer from resonance and missed steps without feedback. Their straightforward design makes them easy to implement and maintain, and are usually found in cheaper, entry-level machines.

Servo motors

Servo motors use closed-loop control with high precision and speed feedback, suitable for dynamic and high-precision tasks. Although more complex and expensive, requiring encoders and sophisticated controllers, they offer high accuracy, smooth operation, and better efficiency. They are ideal for high-speed applications where precision and dynamic load handling are crucial.

Linear drives

Magnetic linear drives provide direct linear motion using magnetic fields, eliminating the need for mechanical conversion and ensuring extremely high precision and smooth motion. They are best for applications needing very high precision and high-speed motion. Despite their high cost and complexity, these drives offer superior performance with no mechanical backlash or wear.

CNC matrix bed

Key Features to consider when buying a CNC router

Spindle Power and Speed

The spindle is the heart of the CNC router. Spindle power and speed (rpm) determine the types of materials you can work with, the depth of cuts you can make, and the feed speeds you can achieve. Higher spindle power (horsepower or kilowatts) is essential for tougher materials and faster cutting speeds. Higher spindle speeds are often specified for processing lighter materials with smaller diameter tools.

Table Size and Work Area

Consider the maximum size of the material you’ll be working with. The table size and work area should accommodate your largest projects and, crucially, the largest starting size of the workpiece. For example, if working with wood-based panels typically, an 8×4’ sheet would need a table size of 1500 x 2500 mm, or if working with full sheets of acrylic a 2100 x 3100mm bed is ideal. Remember, you will unlikely regret going for a larger table, but you will kick yourself if it’s too small!

Work Holding and Bed Types for CNC Routers

Securing the workpiece during machining is essential for operator safety, efficient production and for achieving an accurate quality cut. There are several bed types available with varying attributes designed for working with different material characteristics.

        • Vacuum Bed: A vacuum bed uses suction created by a vacuum pump to hold the material in place. This type of bed is ideal for working with large flat sheet material. It provides a strong hold and can handle irregularly shaped workpieces and nesting operations (see more about nesting below in the glossary below). A sacrificial bed, usually 5mm MDF, is placed on the machine bed before mounting the workpiece – this allows the vacuum suction to secure the workpiece. At the same time, the cutter penetrates the material and cuts slightly into the sacrificial MDF avoiding any contact with the machine bed itself. 

Pros: Great for flat sheets, allows nesting operations

Cons: Harder to work with smaller components or irregularly shaped material without using separate jigs

        • T-Slot Bed: A T-slot bed has slots where clamps and fixtures can be mechanically secured that, in turn, can be used to hold material in place. This type of bed is versatile and allows for easy repositioning of clamps, making it suitable for various materials and projects.

Pros: Ideal for smaller or irregular-sized components

Cons: Can’t nest without leaving tabs in place, can take longer to set up jobs

        • Hybrid Bed: A hybrid bed combines the features of vacuum and T-slot beds, offering clamping flexibility and the convenience of vacuum holding. This type of bed is ideal for shops that handle a wide range of materials and project types.

Pros: Versatile working with all types of material

Cons: Not usually possible to work with sacrificial bed


Software Compatibility

Ensure the CNC router is compatible with your preferred design software (CAD/CAM). User-friendly software can streamline the design-to-production process. Popular software options include:

        • AutoCAD: Widely used for its versatility and precision.
        • Fusion 360: Known for its integrated CAD, CAM, and CAE capabilities.
        • VCarve Pro: Ideal for woodworking and sign making.
        • SolidCAM: Excellent for 3D design and modelling.

Durability and Build Quality

Look for a CNC router built with high-quality materials. A robust frame and components will ensure long-term accuracy and reliability. Common materials include:

        • Steel Frames: Offer excellent stability and durability, usually found on industrial machines.
        • Aluminium Frames: Provide a good balance between strength and weight.

Precision and Accuracy

Check the router’s precision specifications, such as resolution (smallest movement the router can make) and repeatability (ability to return to the same position). Higher precision is crucial for detailed and intricate work. Precision and accuracy will be influenced by the type of drive on each axis – see above in section What’s the difference between a CNC Router’s stepper, servo, and linear drives?

        • Resolution: Measured in microns or thousandths of an inch.
        • Repeatability: Indicates the consistency of performance over multiple cycles.

Speed and Efficiency

The router’s speed, including its cutting and rapid movement speed, affects productivity. High-speed routers can complete tasks more quickly, but balancing speed with precision is essential.

        • Cutting Speed: Determines how fast the router can cut through material.
        • Rapid Movement Speed: How quickly the router can move between cuts.

Customer Support and Warranty

Good customer support and a comprehensive warranty can save you a lot of trouble in case of any technical issues. CNC routers are often installed for high production output. As soon as it stops working you are potentially losing money. Look for manufacturers that offer:

        • Technical Support Desk: Available via phone, email, or online chat.
        • Remote Machine Connection: It is invaluable for the support desk to be able to connect to the machine remotely. Make sure the machine you choose has this ability.
        • Training Programs: Workshops or online tutorials to help get the most out of your investment.
        • Warranty: Covers parts and labour for a specified period.

iVision - linear flat table dust collectors

Additional Considerations

Dust Collection

A good dust collection system is essential for maintaining a clean work environment and prolonging the life of the CNC router, not to mention the impact on operator health. Look for CNC routers with built-in dust collection ports and ensure an external dust collection system with a suitable flow and pressure rating to serve the machine and materials you are cutting properly.


High-speed cutting generates heat, which can affect the material and the machine. Cooling systems, such as air or mist, help maintain optimal operating temperatures.


Keeping the operator and any other persons near the machine safe must be treated as a top priority. Smaller CNC desktop routers are often housed in a fully enclosed cabin with interlocked doors to prevent access while machining. As the working area of machines increases, a full enclosure becomes less practical. Direct guarding around the cutting tool combined with perimeter guarding or access restrictions around the machine’s working area is common. These can be physical barriers, light curtains, pressure mats, LIDAR sensors or a combination.

In the UK, it is a requirement under health and safety legislation, mainly PUWER and the MANAGEMENT 1992 regs that you as the user carry out a risk assessment based on who and where the equipment is used. For more information you can download the HSE information sheet on safe working practices for routers and machining centres here – https://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis22.pdf

How to Choose the Right CNC Router for Your Needs

We have covered a lot. You should have a good understanding of a CNC router and the various parts that make up a machine, the advantages of investing in a machine, the materials it can process, and what to consider when choosing the right machine for you.

Remember these key points when choosing the CNC router for your production.

Identify Your Needs: Consider the projects you will be working on, the materials you will use, and your budget. Ask yourself:
What is the primary purpose of the CNC router?

        • What materials will I be cutting?
        • What size work area do I need?
        • What level of precision and speed do I require?

Research and Compare: Compare different models’ features, reviews, and prices. Create a comparison chart to help visualise the differences.

Visit Showrooms or Trade Shows: If possible, see the machines in action and talk to experts. This hands-on experience can provide valuable insights into the machine’s performance and ease of use.

Consult with Professionals: Get advice from industry professionals or users with CNC routers experience. Online forums, user groups, and professional associations can be excellent resources.

Evaluate Total Cost of Ownership: Consider not just the purchase price but also the operating costs, maintenance, software, and potential upgrades. What will the residual value be at the end of its life?

CNC routers from Daltons Wadkin

CNC Routers from Daltons Wadkin

As one of the longest established machinery distributors in the UK, we have been supplying and supporting CNC machines for decades. Our current portfolio of machines includes desk top routers for light work and engraving, through to high production machines with automatic loading and unloading systems. Our Nottingham showroom is open to customers wanting to replace, upgrade or add to their existing machines, or for complete novices looking to take their first steps into CNC routing.

Below are a few video case studies you might find interesting.

CASE STUDY – Close Cell Polystyrene

CASE STUDY – Aluminium

CASE STUDY – Foam Packaging

CASE STUDY – Sign Making


Investing in the right CNC router can significantly enhance your production capabilities boosting productivity, improving accuracy and consistency while reducing dependence on skilled labour. By considering the key features and following the tips in this guide, you can make an informed decision that best suits your needs, and invest with confidence.

For more detailed information or to arrange a working demonstration on a CNC router, contact our team

+44 (0)115 986 5201



Accuracy: The degree to which the final machined part conforms to the specified dimensions and tolerances. High accuracy means the part closely matches the intended design.

Axis: The direction of movement in a CNC machine. CNC routers typically have three primary axes: X (left-right), Y (front-back), and Z (up-down).

Backlash: The small amount of play or lost motion in a mechanical system, often due to gaps between parts, which can affect accuracy.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design): Software used to create precise drawings and technical illustrations. These designs are often used to generate CNC machine instructions.

CAM (Computer-Aided Machining): Software used to convert CAD designs into CNC machine instructions (G-code).

Controller: The computer or microprocessor that interprets the G-code and controls the movements of the CNC machine.

Cutting Speed: The speed at which the cutting tool moves through the material, usually measured in metres per minute (m/min), millimetres per minute (mm/min) or inches per minute (IPM).

Depth of Cut: The thickness of the material removed in one pass of the cutting tool.

End Mill: A type of cutting tool used in CNC routers with cutting edges on the end and sides, allowing it to cut in all directions.

Feed Rate: The speed at which the cutting tool or workpiece is moved during machining, typically measured in metres per minute (m/min), millimetres per minute (mm/min) or inches per minute (IPM).

G-code: The language used to instruct CNC machines how to move. It includes commands for positioning, speed, and other functions.

Homing/ Referencing: The process of moving the CNC machine to a reference point, usually at the machine’s limits, to establish a known position.

Interpolation: The process of calculating intermediate points to create smooth motion between two points, commonly used in creating arcs and curves.

Jogging: Manually moving the CNC machine along its axes using the control interface for setup and positioning purposes.

Lead Screw: A threaded rod used to translate rotational motion into linear motion, often used in CNC routers for precise movements.

Linear Rail: A guide rail system that allows for smooth and accurate linear motion of the machine’s components.

Milling: The process of machining using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece, commonly used in CNC routers.

Nesting: The process of arranging multiple parts on a single sheet of material in an optimised layout to minimise waste and maximise material usage.

Origin: The starting point or zero position for the CNC machine, often set at the beginning of a job to ensure accurate positioning.

Post Processor: Software that translates CAM-generated toolpaths into G-code specific to a particular CNC machine’s controller, ensuring compatibility and proper functioning of the machine.

Repeatability: The ability of a CNC machine to return to a previously defined position accurately, ensuring that the same operation can be performed consistently on multiple parts.

RPM (Revolutions Per Minute): The number of turns the cutting tool makes in one minute, indicating the speed of the tool’s rotation.

Servo Motor: A type of motor used in CNC machines that provides precise control of angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration. It typically includes a feedback system for improved accuracy and repeatability.

Spindle: The rotating component of the CNC router that holds and drives the cutting tool.

Stepper Motor: A type of motor commonly used in CNC machines that moves in discrete steps, allowing for precise control of position.

Tolerances: The allowable deviation from a specified dimension, indicating the precision required in the machining process.

Tool Length Sensor: A device used to automatically determine the Z-axis zero position by touching the cutting tool to the plate and recording the position.

Toolpath: The programmed route that the cutting tool follows to machine the workpiece, generated by CAM software.

Workpiece: The material being machined by the CNC router.

Workholding: The method or device used to secure the workpiece in place during machining, such as clamps or vacuum tables.